1. Historical Games in History Education 
  2. Historical Games and History (and Society) 
  3. Ancient History and Historical Games
  4. Medieval European History and Historical Games
  5. US Western History and Games
  6. World Wars and Digital Historical Games
  7. Imperialism and Colonialism Games
  8. Sid Meier’s Civilization and History 
  9. Simulation & Game Design and Use 
  10. Games and Simulations in Education
  11. Formal Analysis of Video Games (Including Literary Analysis)
  12. Interactive Text and Interactive Narrative / Storytelling
  13. Issues of Pedagogy Relevant for Using Gaming in Education
  14. History of Games
  15. The Discipline of History and History Education, Counterfactual History
  16. Media Literacy
  17. Game Theory


Historical Games in History Education

Alexander, J. W. (2013). Civilization and enlightenment: A study in computer gaming and history education. The Middle Ground Journal, 6.

Devlin-Scherer, R., & Sardone, N. B. (2010). Digital simulation games for social studies classrooms. The Clearing House, 83, 138-144.

Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S. (2005). Beyond edutainment: Exploring the educational potential of computer games (Doctoral dissertation).

Gilbert, L. (2019). Assassin’s Creed reminds us that history is human experience: students’ senses of empathy while playing a narrative video game. Theory and Research in Social Education 47(1): 108–137.

Hanes, L. and R. Stone (2018). A model of heritage content to support the design and analysis of video games for history education. Journal of Computer Education

Houghton, R. (2016) Where did you learn that? The self-perceived educational impact of historical computer games on undergraduates. Gamevironments. (Gamevironments of the Past available online)

Lee, J. M. (1994). Effectiveness of the use of simulations in a social studies classroom. Retrieved from

Marsh, C. J. (1981). Simulation games and the social studies teacher. Theory into Practice, 187-193.

Mavrommati, M., Bousiou, D., and P. Corbeil (2013). Learning to “do history” through gameplay. The Computer Games Journal 2, 68-84.

McCall, J. (2011). Gaming the Past: Using Video Games to Teach Secondary History. Routledge.

McCall, J. (2012). Navigating the Problem Space: The Medium of Simulation Games in the Teaching of HistoryThe History Teacher 45 , 9-28.

McCall, J. (2014). Simulation games and the study of the past: classroom guidelines. In  K. Kee, ed. Pastplay: Teaching and Learning History with Technology. University of Michigam Press, 2014  (free digital download)

McCall, J. (2016). Teaching history with digital historical games: an introduction to the field and best practices. Simulation & Gaming 47, 517-542.

McCall, J. (2019). Playing with the past: History, video games, and why it might matter. Journal of Geek Studies 6, 29-48. (available online)

McMichael, A. (2007). PC games and the teaching of history. The History Teacher, 40, 203-218.

Metzger, S. and R. Paxton. (2016). Gaming history: A framework for what video games teach about the past. Theory and Research in Social Education: 1-33.

O’Neill, K. and Feenstra, B. (2016). “Honestly, I Would Stick with the Books”: Young Adults’ Ideas About a Videogame as a Source of Historical Knowledge. Game Studies, 16(2). (available online)

Rantala, J. (2018) Simulations as tool for teaching historical agency: A case study in Finland, in C. Wright-Maley ed., More Like Life Itself: Simulations as Powerful and Purposeful Social Studies. Information Age

Robison, W. B. (2013). Stimulation, not simulation: An alternate approach to history teaching games. The History Teacher, 46, 577-588.

Schick, J. B. (1984). Computer software: Historical games. OAH Newsletter, 12(3), 14-15.

Schick, J. B. (1985). Microcomputer simulations in the classroom. History Microcomputer Review, 1(1), 3-6.

Schick, J. B. (1988). Historical choices. History Microcomputer Review, 4(1), 15-20.

Squire, K. (2004). Replaying history: Learning world history through playing Civilization III (Doctoral dissertation).

Wainwright, A. M. (2014). Teaching historical theory through video games. The History Teacher, 47, 579-612.

Watson, W. R., Mong, C. J., & Harris, C. A. (2010). A case study of the in-class use of a video game for teaching high school history. Computers & Education, 56, 466-474.

Weir, K., & Baranowski, M. (2011). Simulating history to understand international politics. Simulation & Gaming, 42, 441-461.

Worthington, T. (2018)Letting Students Control Their Own Learning: Using Games, Role-Plays, and Simulations in Middle School U.S. History Classrooms. The Social Studies, 109: 136-50

Wright-Maley, C. (2015). Beyond the “Babel problem”: Defining simulations for the social
studies. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 39, 63-77.

Historical Games and History (and Society)

Carvalho, V. (2017). Videogames as tools for social science history. The Historian, 79,  794-819

Chapman, A., Foka, A. and J. Westin (2016). Introduction: what is historical game studies? Rethinking History: The Journal of Theory and Practice,  1-14. (available online)

Chapman, A. (2016). Digital Games as History: How Videogames Represent the Past and Offer Access to Historical Practice. London: Routledge.

Copplestone, T. (2017). But that’s not accurate: the differing perceptions of accuracy in cultural-heritage videogames between creators, consumers and critics. Rethinking History 21: 415–438.

De Angeli, D., Scott, L., O’Neill, E., Finnegan, D., and A. Bull (2018). Agonistic Games: Multiperspective and unsettling games for a social change. Chi Play 18 Extended Abstracts: 103-8

Ghys, T. (2012). Technology trees: Freedom and determinism in historical strategy games. Game Studies: The International Journal of Computer Game Research, 12(1). Retrieved from

Gilbert, L. (2019). Assassin’s Creed reminds us that history is human experience: students’ senses of empathy while playing a narrative video game. Theory and Research in Social Education 47(1): 108–137.

Henthorne, T. (2003). Cyber-Utopias: The politics and ideology of computer games. Studies in Popular Culture, 25(3): 63-76.

Houghton, R. (2018). World, structure and play: A framework for games as historical research outputs, tools, and processes. Práticas da História, 7: 11-43.

Kapell, M. W., & Elliott, A. B. R. (2013). Playing with the past: Digital games and the simulation of history. London, England: Bloomsbury Academic.

MacCallum-Stewart, E. & Parsler, J. (2007) Controversies: historicizing the computer game. Situated Play, Proceedings of DiGRA 2007 Conference: 203–210. (available online)

McCall, J. (2012). Historical simulations as problem spaces: Criticism and classroom use. Journal of Digital Humanities 1.

McCall, J. (2018). Video games as participatory public history. In D. Dean, ed. The Companion to Public History. Hoboken: Wiley and Sons.

Taylor, T. (2003). Historical simulations and the future of the historical narrative. Journal of the Association for History and Computing, 6(2). Retrieved from

Uricchio, W. (2005). Simulation, history, and computer games. In Raessans J. and J. Goldstein (Eds.), Handbook of Computer Game Studies Cambridge, MA: MIT: pp. 327-338.

Vowinckel, A. (2009). Past futures: From re-enactment to the simulation of history in computer games. Historical Social Research/Historische Sozialforschung. 34, 322-332.

Wright, E. (2018). On the promotional context of historical video games. Rethinking History, 1-11.

Ancient History Games

Thorsen, T. S. (2013). Greek and Roman games in the computer age. Oslo, Norway: Akademika Forlag.

Medieval European History Games

Kline, D. (2014). Digital Gaming Re-imagines the Middle Ages. London: Routledge.

Wolterink, J (2017) Authentic Historical Imagery: A Suggested Approach for Medieval Videogames. Gamevironments, issue 6, 1-33. (available online)

Wright-Maley C., and J. Parag (2018). All fall down: Simulating the spread of the Black Plague in the high school history classroom. The History Teacher 50, 517-34 

US Western History Games

Wills, J. (2008). Pixel cowboys and silicon gold mines: Videogames of the American West. Pacific Historical Review, 77, 273-303.

World Wars Games

Campbell, J. (2008). Just less than total war: Simulating World War II as ludic nostalgia. In Whalen & L. Taylor (Eds.), Playing the past: History and nostalgia in video games (pp. 182-200). Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt.

Chapman, A. (2016). It’s Hard to Play in the Trenches: World War I, Collective Memory and Videogames. Game Studies, 16(2). (available online)

Gish, H. (2010). Playing the Second World War: Call of Duty and the telling of history. Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture, 4, 167-180. Retrieved from

Imperialism and Colonialism Games

Borit, C., Borit, M., and P. Olsen (2018). Representations of Colonialism in Three Popular, Modern Board Games: Puerto Rico, Struggle of Empires, and ArchipelagoOpen Library of Humanities, 4: 17.

Faiduti, B.(2017). Postcolonial Catan, in Torner E, Waldron, E. and A. Trammell (eds.) Analog Game Studies Vol. II. Pittsburg: Carnegie Mellon.

Mukherjee, S. (2015). The playing fields of empire: Empire and spatiality in video games. Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds: 299-315.

Sid Meier’s Civilization and History

Burns, A. (2002). Civilization III: Digital game-based learning and macrohistory simulations.

Retrieved from

Ford. D. (2016)“eXplore, eXpand, eXploit, eXterminate”:Affective Writing of Postcolonial History and Education in Civilization V. Game Studies, 16.

Koebel, G. (2017). Simulating the ages of man: Periodization in Civilization V and Europa Universalis IV. Loading … , 10(17), 60-76. (available online)

Owens, T. (2011). Modding the History of Science: Values at play in modder discussions of Sid Meier’s civilization. Simulation & Gaming, 42, 481-495.

Poblocki, K. (2002) Becoming-state: the bio-cultural imperialism of Sid Meier’s Civilization. Focaal – European Journal of Anthropology 39: 163–177. (available online)

Taylor, T. (1994). Using the simulation “Civilization” in a world history course. History Microcomputer Review, 10, 11-16.


Simulation & Game Design and Use

Adams , D.M. (1973). Simulation games: an approach to learning . Worthington , Ohio : Charles A. Jones Publishing.

Arnold, T. (1998). “How to Make Your History Class Hop with Excitement (At Least Once a Semester): Designing and Using Classroom Simulations.” The History Teacher31, (2), 193-203.

Chin, J., Dukes, R., & Gamson, W. (2009). Assessment in simulation and gaming: A review of the last 40 years. Simulation & Gaming, 40, 553-568.

Crookall, D. (2010). Serious games, debriefing, and simulation/gaming as a discipline. Simulation & Gaming, 41, 898-920.

Cruickshank, D.R. (1980). Classroom games and simulations. Theory Into Practice, 19 (1), 75-80.

Fransecky, R.B. and J. Trojanski (1973). Academic gaming. Cincinnati : University of Cincinnati Teaching and Learning Monograph Series.

Fullerton, T. (2008). Game Design Workshop: A Playcentric Approach to Creating Innovative Games. Morgan Kaufman.

Gilbert, N. and K.G. Troitzsch (2005). Simulation for the social scientist. Second Edition. New York: Open University Press.

Gillipsie, P.H. (1973). Learning through simulation games. New York: Paulist Press.

Gredler, M. (1994). Designing and evaluating games and simulations. Houston: Gulf Publishing.

Greenblat, C.S. (1988) Designing games and simulations: an illustrated handbook. Newbury Park: SAGE Publications.

Heyman, M. (1975). Simulation games for the classroom. Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.

Heitzmann, W.R. (1983). Educational games and simulations. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association.

Iuppa N, and Borst, T. (2007). Story and Simulations for Serious Games: Tales from the Trenches. Focal Press.

Marsh, C.J. (1981). Simulation games and the social studies teacher. Theory Into Practice , 20 (3), 187-93.

Polos, N.C. (1968). Games social scientists play. The History Teacher, 1(4) , 16-18+20- 21.

Poullis, C., Kersten-Oertel, M., Benjamin J., Philbin-Briscoe, O., Simon, B, Perissiou, D., Demesticha, S., Markou, E. Frentzos, E., Kyriakidis, P., Skarlatos, D., and S. Rizvic (2018). Evaluation of “The Seafarers”: A serious game on seaborne trade in the Mediterranean Sea during the Classical Period. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage: 1-14.

Raser, J.R.R. (1969). Simulation and society . Boston : Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Rasmussen J.L. and R.B. Oakley (1992). Conflict resolution in the Middle East: simulating a diplomatic negotiation between Israel and Syria. Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Salen, K. and Zimmerman, E. (2003). Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Sauvé, L., Renaud, L., Kaufman, D., & Marquis, J.-S. (2007). Distinguishing between games and simulations: A systematic review. Educational Technology & Society, 10, 247-256.

Stasz, C. S. (1995). The early days of Simulation and Games: A personal reflection. Simulation & Gaming, 26, 511-517.


Games and Simulations in Education

Aldrich, C. (2004). Simulations and the future of learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Aldrich, C. (2005). Learning by doing: a comprehensive guide to simulations, computer games, and pedagogy in e-learning and other educational experiences. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

Brown, Harry J.(2008). Videogames and Education. Armon, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Bogost, I. (2005). Videogames and the future of education. On the Horizon, 13(2), 119-125.

Clark, R. (2007). Learning from serious games? Arguments, evidence, and research suggestions.Educational Technology , 47(3), 56-59.

Colella, V. (2003). Participatory simulations: Building collaborative understanding through immersive dynamic modeling. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9, 471-500.

Ferdig, R. and J. Boyer (2007). Can Game Development Impact Academic Achievement? T.H.E Journal, October. Available online

Ferdig, R. and J. Boyer (2007). Getting Started with Videogame Development? T.H.E Journal, November. Available online

Foreman, J. (2004). Game-based learning: How to delight and instruct in the 21st century. Educause , 39 (5), 50-66. Available online at Educause

Garris, R., Ahlers, R. and J. Driskell (2003). Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33, 441-67.

Gee, J.P. (2003) What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy . New York : Palgrave Macmillan.

Gee, J.P. (2007) Good Video Games and Good Learning. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Halverson, R. (2005). What can K-12 school leaders learn from video games and gaming? Innovate 1(6);

Kordaki, M. (2003) “The effect of tools of a computer microworld on students’ strategies regarding the concept of conservation of area,” Educational Studies in Mathematics, 52, 177-209.

Mayer, R., Mautone P., and Prothero, W. (2002). Pictorial aids for learning by doing in a multimedia geology simulation game. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (1), 171-185.

McCall J. (2005) Case Study of Civilization III Education Arcade 2005: Civilization III Panel Video

McCall J. (2006) Games as historical interpretations: The case of Rome: Total War. Games, Learning, and Society Conference 2006: Historical Thinking and Games Panel. Video

McLester, S. (2005). Game plan. Technology and Learning, 26 (3),18-26.

O’Neil, H.F., Wainess, R. and E.L. Baker (2005). Classification of learning outcomes: Evidence from the computer games literature. The Curriculum Journal, 2005, 16, 455 – 474.

Prensky, M. (2007). Simulation Nation. Edutopia. Available online at Edutopia

Prensky, M. (2007). Sims vs. Games. Edutopia.  Available online at Edutopia

Squire K., Jenkins, H., Holland , W., Miller, H., O’Driscoll, A., Tan, K.P. & K. Todd (2003). Design principles of next-generation digital gaming for education. Educational Technology , **, 17-23.

Squire, K. (2005). Game based learning: Present and future state of the field. Masie Center e-Learning Consortium; 

Squire, K. (2005). Resuscitating research in educational technology: using game-based learning research as a lens for looking at design-based research. Educational Technology, 45 (1), 9-14.

Squire, K. (2007). Games, learning, and society: Building a field. Educational Technology, 47(4), 51-55.

Squire, K. (2011). Video games and learning: Teaching and participatory culture in the digital age. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Steffe, L.P. and H.G. Wiegel (1994). Cognitive play and mathematical learning in computer microworlds. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 26, pp. 111- 134.

Thomas, D. (2005). Messages and mediums: learning to teach with videogames. On the Horizon , 13, 89-94.

Tobias, S and Fletcher, J. (2007). What research has to say about designing computer games for learning. Educational Technology , **, 20-29.

Whitton, N. (2011). Game engagement theory and adult learning. Simulation & Gaming, 42, 596-609.

Formal Analysis of Video Games

Bogost, Ian (2007), Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.

Bogost, Ian (2008), Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism. Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press.

Elverdam, C., and Aarseth, E. (2007). “Game classification and game design: Construction through critical analysis,” Games and Culture, 2,  3-22.

Harrigan, Pat and Noah Wardrip-Fruin(2007), Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media. Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press.

Harrigan, Pat and Noah Wardrip-Fruin (2009), Third Person: Authoring and Exploring Vast Narratives. Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press.

Hitchen, M. and A. Drachen (2009). The Personal Experience of Narratives in Role-Playing Games. Proceedings from Intelligent Narrative Technologies II.

Howard, Jeff (2008), Quests: Design, Theory, and History in Games and Narratives. AK Peters Ltd.

Juul, J. (2005). Half-Real: Video Games between Real Rules and Fictional Worlds. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.

Mawhorter, P., Mateas, M., Wardrip-Fruin, N., and A. Jhala, (2014)  Towards a theory of choice poetics. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games

Michael, D. and Chen, S., Serious Games: Games That Educate, Train, and Inform, Boston: Thomson Course Technology, 2006.

Montfort, Nick (2005), Twisty Little Passages: An Approach to Interactive Fiction. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press.

Wardrip-Fruin, Noah and Pat Harrigan (2004), First Person: New Media as Story, Peformance, and Game. Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press.

Whalen, Z. and L.N. Taylor, eds. (2008). Playing the Past: History and Nostalgia in Video Games. Nashville: Vanderbilt.

Interactive Text and Interactive Narrative / Storytelling

Nack, F., and A. Gordon, eds. (2016). Interactive Storytelling: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling.

Issues of Pedagogy Relevant for Using Gaming in Education

Guiller, J., Durndell, A. and A. Ross (2008). Peer interaction and critical thinking: face-to-face or online discussion?. Learning and Instruction, 18, 187-200.

Mayer, R. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning? American Psychologist, 59, 14-19.

Moreno, R., Mayer, R.E., Spires, H.A. and J.C. Lester (2001). “The case for social agency in computer-based teaching: Do students learn more deeply when they interact with animated pedagogical agents? Cognition and Instruction,  19, 177-213.

Moreno, R. & Mayer, R.E. (1999). “Cognitive principles of multimedia learning: The role of modality and contiguity,” Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 358-368.

Semb, G.B. and Ellis, J.A. (1994). “Knowledge taught in school: What is remembered?. Review of Educational Research, 64, 253-86.

History of Games

Wood, K.(2018). A history of play in print: Games from the Renaissance to Milton Bradley. Center for Gaming Research Occasional Paper Series 44, 1-13.

The Discipline of History and History Education, Counterfactual History

Bransford, J., Brown, A., and Cocking, R. (Eds.) (1999). How people learn . Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.

Carr, E.H. (1961). What is history . New York : Vintage Books.

Ferguson, N. (1997). Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Megill, A. (2007). Historical knowledge, historical error: A contemporary guide to practice. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.

Rouet, J-F., Britt, A.B., Mason, R.A., and Perfetti , C.A. (1996). Using multiple sources of evidence to reason about history. Journal of Educational Psychology . 88 (3), 478-493.

Spoehr, K.T. and Spoehr, L.W. (1994). Learning to think historically. Educational Psychologist. 29 (2), 71-77.

Sternberg, R.J. (2003). What is an “expert student?” Educational Researcher, 32 (8), 5-9

VanSledright, B.A. (2002). “Fifth Graders Investigating History in the Classroom: Results from a Researcher-Practitioner Design Experiment.” The Elementary School Journal, 103, 131-160.

VanSledright, B.A. (2002).  “Confronting History’s Interpretive Paradox while Teaching Fifth Graders to Investigate the Past.” American Educational Research Journal, 39, 1089-1115.

Wineburg, S.S. (1991a). Historical problem solving: a study of the cognitive processes used in the evaluation of documentary and pictorial evidence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83 (1), 73-87.

Wineburg S.S. (1991b). On the reading of historical texts: notes on the breach between school and academy. American Educational Research Journal. 28, 495-519.

Media Literacy

Beach, R., Anson, C., Kastman-Breuch, L. and T. Swiss (2008). Teaching Writing Using Blogs, Wikis, and Other Digital Tools. Norwood, MA: Christopher Gordon.

Eagleton, M.B. and Dobler, E. (2007). Reading the Web: Strategies for Internet Inquiry, New York: Guilford Press.

Game Theory

Barash, D.P. (2003). The survival game: how game theory explains the biology of cooperation and competition. New York: Times Books.

Straffin, P.D. (1993) Game theory and strategy. Washington D.C.: The Mathematical Association of America.

Garris, R., Ahlers, R. and J. Driskell, “Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model,” Simulation & Gaming, 2002, vol. 33, 441-67.


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  1. May 17, 2010 at 4:31 pm

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